Plotter Repair Technicians – Experienced in Handling Plotters

The technical description of a plotter according to the ‘Computer Hope’ is “a computer hardware device that is used for printing vector graphics. As opposed to the series of dots that signify the other forms of printing, here, there is a printing tool like a pen or marker that draws continuous lines to obtain the outputs”. The website goes on to define the advantages of using plotters. The main benefit is that the plotter can be used to get printouts on large-sized sheets of paper with the same high resolution possible with other smaller printing machines. If you are using plotters, you will need the services of good plotter repair technicians if and when the plotters break down.

Experience Essential to Attend to the Machines

The plotters, in any case, belong to the higher end in terms of the technology involved as well as in terms of the professional use they are meant for. This definitely means  they should be attended to by professional plotter printer repairs technicians. Not only would you want them to be skilled professionals, but they must also possess sufficient experience in the same line. The agency you have sought out for Canon plotter repairs in Sydney should also be preferably having many years of handling plotters. Only then will they be able to respond to fault complaints and solve them quickly, letting you carry on with your work with a minimum plotter breakdown.

Have Them Serviced Regularly

Plotters, particularly Canon products, need to be maintained properly by the users and the company by supplying what is termed as ‘Canon CarePAK Solutions’ once you buy the product and register it with the company online. As authorised plotter service providers, the repair agency will also have the details. The broader objective is to ensure that the machines are handled by the users’ end in the proper way so that the need to call in the plotter repair technicians is minimised.

Maintenance Agreements Work Better

The industry practice is that the companies encourage buyers of such critical office equipment, like plotters, to sign a long-term agreement with the company’s authorised repairs and servicing agency. This agreement would put the bonus on athe agency to ensure that the plotter’s maintenance is handled by them. The plotter repair technicians and the agency they are a part of will then be responsible to provide the spares needed and to put in the labour needed to maintain your plotters trouble-free.

Pick the Suitable Service Partner

Sydney is a vast place with the city and the suburbs spread over several kilometres. Depending on where you are located, you will have to pick the Canon authorised plotter servicing and repairs agency to attend to your equipment. These are time bound assignments and you would want your complaints to be attended to on priority and solved within the first visit itself.

Use of professional printing solutions like plotters requires enlisting the services of a good service agency which has competent professionals to take care of the regular upkeep of the machines and attend to the repairs when needed. For more detailed information online, log on to the Internet (check : https://gom.com.au)

Importance of Commercial Insurance for Business Owners

If you are a start-up business owner, you can minimize the effects of risks by taking a commercial insurance policy. Reliable websites such as www.nichetc.com.au contain useful information on this type of insurance, which can make a difference between progress and failure in your business. Effects of Business Risks Even with low investments and a struggling financial base, several risks can still befall your business. When they eventually happen, the effects of such risks as theft, fire, or loss of business documents are profound. This may take a toll on the progress of your business and in some cases, force your business to a halt. Therefore, once you venture into business, you should look for means to protect your enterprise against commercial risks. www.nichetc.com.au Commercial Insurance Policy To that end, one of the best ways to run your business with peace of mind is to have a commercial insurance policy for appropriate cover against the risks. Commercial insurance policies are of great benefit to business owners based on the nature of their business. You can read more about this type of insurance at http://www.nichetc.com.au. For many businesses, common risks include:
  • Interruption of business
  • Damages to business goods and money
  • Employer’s liability and many others
Since each policy comes with its own regulations, it is advisable to take a combined insurance policy to cater for a wide range of products in one package. Instead of purchasing several commercial insurance products individually, you have an option of a combined product that can cater for all your commercial insurance needs. One advantage of combined policies is that they are more cost-effective compared to purchasing the policies individually. Besides, you are also able to customize only what is necessary based on the nature of your business and discard what you do not need. Example of Application: Commercial Aviation Business It is just good news for owners of commercial aircraft because they can now have their planes covered against possible risks. Commercial aviation insurance package is available for businesses that offer airplane hire services. What’s more, individual owners of airplanes can also purchase the policy. Check out NicheTC Additional Protection Against Risks The initial coverage you get from the manufacturer when you purchase the aircraft may not cover all the possible risks, which is why you need this additional cover. Commercial aviation insurance policy may cover agricultural planes, chartered planes, or flight schools. In private coverage, it may cover private planes both single and twin engines and rental aircraft. All the areas mentioned are exposed to aviation-related risks and therefore need coverage. That is why it is important to work with a suitable service provider to provide you with tailor-made, comprehensive commercial aviation insurance. Most service providers have a variety of policies to choose from, regardless of your aviation related risk. You can browse reliable websites such as http://www.nichetc.com.au/ for more information. The companies usually offer coverage to different aircraft depending on the type: helicopters, floatplanes, or commercial airlines. Just as private owners of airplanes also need to cover their aircraft against various risks, commercial aviation companies should also cover their planes against possible risks.

Find the Finest Moissanite Rings at MoiMoi

Back in 1893, a man was investigating a meteor that had crashed in Canyon, Diablo Arizona when he chanced upon something precious. The stones were absolutely brilliant inside of the meteor. They glittered like diamonds but they couldn’t possibly be diamonds, could they? Probably not, so then they thought they must be crystals. In 1904 it was finally figured out what these gorgeous stones were. They were tested and found to be silicon carbide. They were named Moissanite after the man who discovered them, Henri Moissan. Moissanite can be found in the United States in only a few places, and in the upper mantle of rock areas. It is a lot rarer than diamonds and thus very precious. In fact, it is rarer than many of the prized gemstones that we have today. This glittering gemstone which is over 120 years old is now making a comeback. People all over the US and the world are buying the Moissanite rings at Moimoi Fine Jewellery.

What is the difference between diamonds and Moissanite

Moissanite and diamonds look very similar. So similar it is hard to tell them apart unless you are a professional jeweler. The difference is that Moissanite has a double reflection when you look underneath the facets of the ring. You can see it very clearly. A diamond only has a singular reflection. When you do standard tests, Moissanite rings at MoiMoi Fine Jewellery show up as diamonds in many tests. They are an incredibly hard stone. Another way to tell whether it is a diamond or Moissanite is by looking at the outside edges and seeing if the girdle is polished. The weight of a diamond is almost the same carat for carat as a moissanite. That is also something that is incredibly rare because a diamond is very heavy and very hard.

Are Moissanites like Cubic Zirconia?

The problem with being a beautiful diamond-like stone like Moissanite rings from MoiMoi Fine Jewellery is that it is likely to be compared to the cubic zirconia. It is just the belief amongst many buyers that anything that looks like a diamond but isn’t one, must be a cubic zirconia. That certainly is not true and Moissanite compares in price to tanzanite, emeralds, rubies and sapphires in that range of quality. It is an amazing gem all on its own merit.

Moissanite as an engagement ring

Moissanite rings at MoiMoi fine Jewellery definitely earned the reputation for being a stone in its own class. As far as fire quality, most moissanite rings at MoiMoi fine Jewellery have more fire than their diamond counterparts.

MoiMoi Fine Jewellery

Get Moissanite rings at MoiMoi Fine Jewellery. If you have been considering something different than a diamond and quite unique but still as prized as diamond, then the moissanite rings will be perfect for you. On average, it is generally much affordable. You can get something much larger with just as much firepower. So instead of getting a half carat high-quality diamond, you could get a 2 carat gorgeous high-quality Moissanite. You will definitely put a smile on your loved one’s face. Check out moissanite rings at MoiMoi Fine Jewellery at http://www.moimoi.com.au/category-m-collection-57.aspx

Defrosting and the Positive Facts Behind It

Defrosting refrigerators and freezers is a maintenance practice that should be done occasionally by people who own these appliances. The only interesting thing is that some of them don’t know why defrosting is important. People with the older models of these appliances should highly esteem defrosting since it improves efficiency and extends longevity. Although most modern freezers have ‘defrost’ cycles, there is still a need to defrost them manually. Buying or renting any of the fridges Melbourne has today would be a good thing and defrosting it regularly would be crucial in the following ways.

fridges melbourne
fridges melbourne

Creates More Space

A freezer without enough storage for what you need to keep there won’t be helpful. If ice accumulates too much in the freezer, it occupies the space you could have used to keep what you want to preserve. It is normal for ice to build up even in commercial fridges, but you should monitor it and defrost it before it becomes a problem. After defrosting the ice, you may be surprised to see how much space has been occupied. This helps you store more frozen goods in good condition until the time of use.

Improves Efficiency

Any freezer that is not efficient serves no purpose at all. Buying an inefficient freezer could be the last thing you could imagine doing. Efficiency is determined by the ability of the freezer’s components to exchange heat within the system. When ice builds up in a freezer, heat exchange is barricaded. Where possible, it is important to defrost the ice before its thickness grows to about a quarter inch. People who don’t inspect their freezers occasionally get surprised to see the ice with more than the recommended thickness. You should know the different ways you can use to enhance efficiency before you buy or rent a freezer. More information at Cold Display Solutions.

Eliminates Bad Odors

It is true that most bacteria thrive well in warm environments, but some still do well in freezing environments. This is a fact that every person with a freezer at home or intending to buy one should know. The awful odor you may find emanating from the used freezer for sale could be due to these bacteria. Although wiping your freezer with a cloth could be one way of eliminating these bacteria, nothing can work more effectively than defrosting the accumulating ice. It is not advisable to use disinfectants and chemicals to defrost the ice since they may harm your food.

Unclogs Condensation Drains

However much you would wish to keep your freezer in a particular condition, there are processes you can’t control. For instance, it is hard to control condensation in freezing appliances and refrigerators. Condensation usually forms on the coils of your freezer and drips and flows out through the freezer’s drainage lines. Your freezer will begin to leak once the drainage lines freeze. However, these leaks would stop once you defrost the appliance since defrosting is one way of unclogging drainage lines of most fridges Melbourne has today.

The ice you find in your freezer is good in preserving your foods and other products. However, ice is only important if it doesn’t exceed the recommended quantity. It is always important to consult professionals who know how to maintain the fridges Melbourne has today and probably allow them to defrost the ice therein. If you defrost it in the wrong way, you may damage its other delicate components and systems. Visit us at http://coldsolutions.com.au/index.php.

โลโก้ดีมีชัยให้กับแบรนด์

โลโก้คือเครื่องหมายหรือสัญลักษณ์ที่สร้างเอกลักษณ์ให้กับสินค้าหรือแบรนด์ ในการเริ่มต้นการประกอบธุรกิจใดๆก็ตาม สัญลักษณ์ของแบรนด์หรือโลโก้นั้นมีความจำเป็นอย่างมาก และหากโลโก้นั้นสามารถทำหน้าที่สร้างความเฉพาะตัวของแบรนด์ ได้ จะส่งผลดีต่อแบรนด์เป็นอย่างมาก เพราะจะทำให้ผู้บริโภคเกิดความเชื่อมั่น เกิดความเข้าใจในตัวสินค้าและยอมรับในตัวสินค้า และที่สำคัญคือความต้องการที่จะสร้างให้ผู้บริโภคเกิดความรู้สึกประทับใจ แม้ว่าเรื่องของเอกลักษณ์ของโลโก้ จะไม่ใช่สิ่งเดียวที่เกี่ยวกับการสร้างแบรนด์ แต่เรื่องของแบรนด์กับเอกลักษณ์ เป็นเรื่องที่ต้องเกิดขึ้นควบคู่กันอยู่เสมอ เราสามารถสร้างแบรนด์ให้โดดเด่นได้ด้วยกานสร้างเอกลักษณ์ให้กับแบรนด์ ด้วยการ ออกแบบโลโก้ อย่างมีเอกลักษณ์ที่ผู้บริโภคสามารถจดจำได้ โลโก้ที่ดีที่ดีต้องสามารถสื่อตัวตนของแบรนด์ได้โลโก้ต้องเป็นที่จดจำต้องสื่อได้แม้ไม่ได้ใช้สีสันและต้องสามารถสื่อได้แม้ขนาดเล็กๆ

หลักในการ ออกแบบโลโก้ ต่างกับการออกแบบกราฟฟิกทั่ว ๆ ไป ตรงที่ ออกแบบโลโก้ จะต้องนำไปใช้กับแบรนด์ กับสินค้าของลูกค้า เพราะฉะนั้นจึงต้องคำนึงธุรกิจว่าจะลงสื่อไหนบ้าง หรือคำนึงถึงลูกค้าว่าจะจดจำได้ง่ายขนาดไหนซึ่งหากเราต้องการสร้างเอกลักษณ์ให้กับแบรนด์ ปัจจุบันมีนักสร้างแบรนด์มืออาชีพอยู่มากมายที่สามารถให้คำปรึกษาที่ดีได้กับเจ้าของธุรกิจ นักสร้างแบรนด์มืออาชีพ จะรู้ดีว่าจุดเริ่มต้นในการสร้างแบรด์นั้นไม่ใช่เริ่มที่ ออกแบบโลโก้ เพียงอย่างเดียว นักสร้างแบรนด์มืออาชีพ จะเริ่มต้นด้วยการ วิจัย และศึกษาเกี่ยวกับธุรกิจ บริษัทของลูกค้าคุณว่า ทำเกี่ยวกับอะไร และดูว่าคู่แข่งของบริษัทลูกค้าคุณเป็นอย่างไร ช่วยวางจุดยืนและทิศทางของแบรนด์ สร้างแผนในการดำเนินธุรกิจที่ถูกต้องกับสินค้าของคุณ หลังจากได้ Brief จากความต้องการของเจ้าของกิจการ และ Research ทิศทางของตลาด ซึ่งทั้งสองขึ้นขั้นตอนนี้เป็นส่วนที่สำคัญก่อนจะเริ่ม ออกแบบโลโก้ เพราะว่า ออกแบบโลโก้ จะออกมาเป็นรูปแบบอย่างไรนั้น ขึ้นอยู่กับความคิดสร้างสรรค์ และแรงบันดาลใจ มาช่วยในการออกแบบ ซึ่งนอกจากวิธีการข้างต้นก่อนการ ออกแบบโลโก้ นั้นนักสร้างแบรนด์มืออาชีพส่วนใหญ่จะมีแนวคิดพื้นฐานเกี่ยวกับการ ออกแบบโลโก้ ที่พอสรุปได้ 5 หลักการที่เจ้าของธุรกิจควรทราบเช่น ฟร้อนต์แบบไหนสื่ออารมณ์แบบไหน การใช้สีและอารมณ์ของสีด้วย เช่น สีแดง ให้ความรู้สืกมั่นคงมีอุดมการณ์ และความกระตือรือร้น การเลือกเลือกรูปทรง ผู้ประกอบการต้องรู้ก่อนว่าอยากให้ออกมามีอารมณ์แบบไหน ซึ่งอารมณ์ที่เลือกก็ควรจะสอดคล้องกับหน้าตาของแบรนด์และความหมายของโลโก้ นักออกแบบโลโก้ ที่ดีไม่ใช่แค่โลโก้ที่เอาชื่อแบรนด์มาจับคู่กับรูปทรงต่างๆเพียงเท่านั้น นักออกแบบโลโก้ ต้องเข้าใจว่าแบรนด์ทำธุรกิจเกี่ยวกับอะไร มีอัตลักษณ์อย่างไร มีทิศทางในตลาด อย่างไร ถึงจะออกแบบมาเป็นโลโก้ที่ดีได้  โลโก้มีอายุการใช้งาน แน่นอนว่าทิศทางของแผนการตลาดจะเปลี่ยนไปอยู่เรื่อยๆ เจ้าของกิจการควรแน่ใจว่า ในอีก 5 หรือ 10 ปี โลโก้ของเราจะยังดูดีอยู่มั้ยและสอดคล้องกับทิศทางการตลาดขององค์กรอยู่หรือไม่ ทั้งหมดนี้ไม่ได้เป็นกฏตายตัวที่เจ้าของกิจการต้องยึดถือ เพียงแต่เป็นแนวทางในการเริ่มต้นธุรกิจด้วยการสร้างแบรนด์จากการ ออกแบบโลโก้ ซึ่งก่อนจะมีโลโก้ที่ดี เจ้าของกิจการควรเริ่มต้นจากการมีนักสร้างแบรนด์มืออาชีพเป็นที่ปรึกษาซึ่งจะสามารถช่วยให้จุดเริ่มต้นในการทำธุรกิจของคุณเป็นเรื่องง่ายขึ้น

Survive a Heart Attack Using These Tips

A heart attack is one of the common causes of death worldwide and this can occur any time of the day. If you experience a heart attack, you should act quickly in order to maximize your chance of survival. Knowing how to spot signs of a heart attack especially when you are alone may help save your life in the long run. However, if you suspect that you have cardiac problems, you need to visit doctors in Brisbane that specialise in cardiology to provide you with correct intervention and management.

Doctors in Brisbane will advise you to watch out for these symptoms for you to be aware if you are having a heart attack:

  • Severe chest pain at the central part or left part of your chest. This can usually last for at least 20 minutes. The pain may also travel to your neck or jaw, as well as your left upper arm.
  • Profuse sweating and a really bad feeling of impending doom.

When you notice these classic symptoms of a heart attack, immediately call for help. No need to pretend that you are doing fine when you feel really bad. You need specialised treatment as soon as possible in order to save your heart muscle. If you are within Brisbane area during the attack, ask someone to take you to the nearest medical centre George Street, Brisbane has today for immediate care.

Beware as well of other symptoms such as shortness of breath, feeling sick to your stomach, dizziness or lightheadedness and anxiety as some people experience these prior to a heart attack. Once you have a heart attack, you should act as quick as possible. Below are suggestions from experts on what you should do during a heart attack. Check SmartClinics for more details.

  1. Stop whatever you are doing, go to a safe place like a couch and call for medical help.
  2. If you are driving, pull to the side of the road and call 911 or similar service. If you cannot pull to the side of the road, make sure to put your hazard lights on to alert other drivers. You can even alert someone to take you to the nearest medical centre city wide for you to receive immediate care.
  3. If you are on an airplane, notify the flight attendant right away. They carry medication on board that may help you survive. They can also ask if there is a doctor on board who might perform CPR if necessary.
  4. Coughing repeatedly will not really help unless your heart is suffering from an abnormal reflex that causes it to beat very slow. Applying pressure on the chest area will unlikely help either unless you are having a cardiac arrest.

If you are taking any maintenance meds, like nitroglycerin, take one dose at the onset of the attack and wait for help to arrive. You can also take aspirin if recommended by doctors in Brisbane. There have been studies that people have a higher chance of survival when taking aspirin. Chew one tablet slowly while waiting for help to arrive. However, be sure to talk to a qualified GP Brisbane City has today for the type of drug you should take in case you might be having a heart attack.

While you are waiting for help to arrive, you have to minimise your activity. Do not panic and stay calm. Exert as little effort as you can to improve your chances of survival.  For more info, visit https://www.smartclinics.com.au/location/george-street/

Are Your Kids Suffering from Vitamin Deficiency?

Today’s food choices often make Australian kids pickier when it comes to their meals. The abundance of processed food in the market does not solve this dilemma, as it gets difficult for them to select healthy food choices. The food intake of average children should consist of protein-rich foods, fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy. However, modern food choices contain lots of added sugars as well as saturated and trans fats, causing an imbalance to their nutritional intake. If you are in Queensland, like in Lutwyche, for instance, you may take your child to any Lutwyche medical centre to check if your child has nutrition deficiency. Knowing the signs to look out for will also help you determine if your child indeed has nutrition deficiency. Dry Skin and Dull Hair Have you noticed your kids’ hair constantly going dry even after using kid-friendly hair products? This might be a sign that your kids have a deficiency in fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K2. If you are within Albion area, you may visit the nearest Albion medical centre to ask for the appropriate vitamins that your kids can take. Delayed Speech This is not widely known but a deficiency in vitamin B12 could be the reason why some children have delayed speech. If you suspect your kids having a speech delay, refrain from giving them any supplements without a doctor’s advice. It is best to talk to qualified Lutwyche doctors for the recommended dose appropriate for their age.  You may also take your kids to a speech pathologist in any Lutwyche medical centre to find out more about their speech delay. Check SmartClinics for more details. Hyperactivity Research shows that there is a strong connection between hyperactivity and poor digestion. When your kids suffer from poor digestion, their bodies may not absorb all the nutrients from the food they eat. When this happens, they become restless and their brain cannot remain calm. Make sure to eliminate any processed food in their diet as well as food with dyes on them. You can instead add foods that help in strengthening their guts and naturally aid in their digestion like papaya, buttermilk, banana, sweet potatoes, and yogurt. Talk to a trusted dietician from any Lutwyche medical centre for more healthy food alternatives that you can give to your kids. Presence of Cavities Having too many sweets and not brushing your teeth may not be the main reason for cavities. Dr. Weston Price, a dentist known for his study on the relationship between nutrition and teeth, found out that cavities are a result of the deficiency in proper minerals as well as the lack of fat soluble vitamins needed to absorb said minerals. Make sure your kids eat natural home cooked meals that are high in fats, carbohydrates, and complete proteins. Obesity Today’s diet often turns children obese. Eating highly processed foods and foods with little nutrients will make the body starve for good nutrients. This is the reason why you will never feel full and continue to stuff yourself with more processed foods. Make sure your kids will eat a variety of foods including meat, vegetables, dairy and seafood. Straying from a balanced diet will make children malnourished. If you live in Clayfield, you may take your kid to any Clayfield doctors for a thorough assessment and management. For more info, visit https://www.smartclinics.com.au/location/lutwyche/

Starting a courier business

Among the easiest businesses to start today in large towns or cities is a courier company. For people who like driving and moving about, this is it. This is because the requirements are easy to assemble as all you need is a reliable means of transportation like a car or motorbike depending on mileage you intend to cover. Skills required also are minimal like good driving skills and basic math and English so that you can do paperwork and follow directions. Besides that, no formal qualifications are necessary when starting out in this kind of business. Personal attributes like good communication skills, reliability, honesty and ability to work unsupervised are, however, necessary to gain and maintain customers. Here are easy steps to starting one.

1. Have a spare room in your home where you will work as your office for paperwork and keeping files. You can also use it as your dispatch center.

2. Create a name for your small business and get a license, including a vendor’s license as it will be necessary for collecting sales tax from customers.

3. Identify the type of customers you would like to deliver your services to e.g. residential or business customers. It’s also important to identify the type of packages you will be picking up and delivering, including the weight limits.

4. Compare the rates of a competitive courier company on sizes, client types and mileage within your location to determine a good rate for your services.

5. it’s important to market your business so that you can get many clients. You can do this by starting a website and placing it on various search engines like google.com. Furthermore, create business cards and put your contact information, including website and phone numbers where people can contact you. Brochures, fliers, advertisements in the local magazines and use of social media platforms like Facebook are also very instrumental in marketing your business at a cheap cost.

6. Start procuring clients by visiting schools, hospitals and even small business and leaving them with your business cards and brochures. Convincing them why your services stand out over other large and known companies would also go a long way in getting your clients.

7. Start preparing for pickups and deliveries when customers begin to make calls. Also important is to maintain a record of all the pickups and deliveries made; just in case anything pops up related to your service delivery. Punctuality is pertinent when picking up or making deliveries; it keeps customers coming back.

8. As business expands you can hire other drivers, employ people to manage the phone calls and someone at a dispatch center to handle small deliveries while you focus your attention on signing the big fish like business corporate on long-term contracts.

What makes a courier company easy to start is the fact that it does not require formal qualification, requires minimal capital to start and only skill required is good driving record and a license. With those, you are good to start your own business.

Warm for the human form, from Rodin’s bronzes to stone slabs

Since the beginning of art as we know it, the human body has been central to artistic concerns.

Classical sculpture set the bar very high in exploring the representation of bodies, and the history of the medium over the past millennium reflects this heritage.

However, by the end of the 19th century, although other artforms were breaking away from classical naturalism, sculpture was becoming moribund and restricted to forms of monumentalism.

And then along came Auguste Rodin. Here is the genius of Rodin: that he was able to blend past mastery with avant-garde artistry. In so doing, he practically single-handedly laid the ground for a century of innovation.

It is this heritage that has inspired Versus Rodin: bodies across space and time, the latest mini-blockbuster to come out of the Art Gallery of South Australia.

The exhibition displays artworks referencing human bodies from 65 (mostly living) Australian and international artists in discrete groups that range across seven related themes, all of which can claim lineage back to Rodin’s oeuvre.

To make this point explicit the curator, Leigh Robb, has dispersed throughout the exhibition the Gallery’s collection of Rodin’s work, the most comprehensive in the Southern Hemisphere.

As the title implies, the exhibition has been conceived of as accommodating both an homage to Rodin and a celebration of his particular obsession – the human body.

It’s a highly diverse collection. Of particular interest are four works by the very prolific and successful British sculptor, Antony Gormley, who makes no bones about the significance of Rodin’s contribution to sculpting the figure. He’s quoted in a brochure accompanying the exhibition,In this exhibition Rodin is credited as the source, indeed the Ur sorcerer, of bodily representations as they have evolved over the past century. Simultaneously, Versus Rodin is predominantly an exhibition of contemporary art, with a curatorial tug of the forelock in the direction of the French master.

Bodies as art objects

It’s this engaging duality which sets this exhibition apart from the postmodern obsession with the body. Here, the human form is not the site of psychoanalysis, political discourse or even sexual speculation: bodies are explored as art objects in and of themselves.

Installation view Versus Rodin: bodies across space and time. Art Gallery of South Australia, 2017
The curators have closely read Rodin’s influences, methods and outcomes, selecting works that provide contemporary counterpoints and contrasts with his extraordinary expressive qualities.

The potential pitfalls of such an exercise are manifold, especially given the size of the supporting cast of artworks. A more risk averse curator might have gone for a sparser effect, selecting fewer works with a less contemporary flavour.

Such sheer variety runs the risk of obscuring the exhibition’s intent, but the exhibition is arranged in a series of galleries, each with its own discrete orientation – the classical body; the fragmented body; the erotic body, and so on. The gathering of works under these particular headings, in association with Rodin’s sculptural meditations on the human form, creates a coherent organising principle.

Ben Leslie’s chainsawed and chopped timber sections with protruding steel reinforcing, have an association with the sculptural detritus evident in photographs of Rodin’s studio. In one particular instance the materiality of Leslie’s Joint Study echoes the truncated brutality of Rodin’s Walking Man.

In the context of this rich juxtaposition of artworks such comparisons occur spontaneously, although, it would be fair to say that many of these artists would never have considered the possibility of a Rodinesque thread running through their work. But Leigh Robb’s curatorial premise is that all artists, post Rodin, who work or have worked with the body, as a fundamental point of reference, have an affinity of kind with the French master.

Robb is also the inaugural curator of contemporary art at AGSA, and in this capacity she has delivered on three counts. She has successfully rehabilitated the Gallery’s collection of an early modernist artist, who, while greatly important in France, has never really been of more than academic interest in Australia.

She has delivered a fascinating collection of mostly contemporary artefacts, which, like the works of Rodin, have their inspiration in the human form. In some places it could be argued she’s drawn something of a long bow, but that’s her prerogative and she has taken full artistic licence and run with it.

She has also placed the works of local, emerging artists alongside of the likes of Anthony Gormley, Louise Bourgeois and Bill Viola and by so doing has nailed down a precedent that should never be forgotten.

Without doubt, Robb has discovered how to display the Rodin sculptural collection to its full potential. Surrounded by their more impudent successors, the bronzes take on a new and quite wonderful glow. This in turn gives aesthetic gravitas to the more contemporary multi-media.

Conceptual Art and Photography

In the wake of Abstract Expressionism, a number of painters developed strategies that extended the life of painting while simultaneously pointing to its inevitable demise. Jasper Johns’s flags and targets were epistemological cul-de-sacs—the image they portrayed could not be separated from their material qualities, literally, as flag or target (1998.329). Like his colleague Robert Rauschenberg, Johns revived concerns of the prewar avant-garde in a postwar context, but in a more conceptually provocative manner in his fusion of two previously antithetical paradigms, that of Duchamp’s readymade with notions of abstraction and the grid from Malevich and Constructivism. Slightly later, Frank Stella created paintings from programmatic arrangements of lines that radiated outward to determine the overall shape of the canvas; all compositional and expressive decision making had been suppressed in favor of the execution of an idea. As the artist’s famous tautology went: “What you see is what you see.”

By 1962, the idea for a linguistic work of art had been proposed by artists associated with the Fluxus collective, particularly in the event-structures of George Brecht, where a simple phrase or directive (one piece was entitled and consisted of the word EXIT) could be enacted by the viewer in an infinite variety of ways. In that same year, the California painter Ed Ruscha used this principle to create the book Twentysix Gasoline Stations, in which he first came up with the title, then proceeded to photograph the subject on one of his road trips from Oklahoma City (his hometown) to Los Angeles, his adopted city. The work of art was to be the book itself, simply but carefully designed, whereas the photographs inside showed no traces of aesthetic decision making at all, as if the artist had merely pointed the camera out the car window in order to fulfill the requirements of the textual phrase. In another book from 1966 entitled Every Building on the Sunset Strip, Ruscha joined together separate photographs of each structure to create a fold-out version of the street itself. With characteristic humor and elegance, Ruscha had extended Jasper Johns’s notion of the completely self-referential object into the realm of mass-produced commodities.

Ruscha’s books of photographs (1970.590.5) introduced the medium as a central aspect of Conceptual Art. Bruce Nauman’s Photograph Suite (popularly known as “Eleven Color Photographs”) of 1966 were comic enactments of puns and wordplay such as “Waxing Hot” (showing hands moving over a bright red sculpture of the word) or “Bound to Fail” (showing the roped torso of the artist from behind) that combined sculptural form, linguistic content, and photographic staging. Dan Graham’s Homes for America, published in the December 1967 issue of Arts magazine, looked at first sight like a bland sociological tract on postwar cookie-cutter housing, but was actually a sly comment on the industrial coloring and geometric structures of then-current Minimalism; like Ruscha’s books, the work was inextricably tied to its status as an article in a mass-produced and circulated publication. This idea of attaching the work of art directly to the channels of distribution and publicity that constituted its inevitable fate as a commodity reached its most pointed use by Martha Rosler for her series House Beautiful: Bringing the War Home, in which she hijacked lifestyle magazine photography to devastating effect (2002.393).

Another example of Conceptual Art’s uniquely self-critical tendencies can be seen in the predilection for bureaucratic forms by artists such as Robert Morris and Douglas Huebler. In works like Cardfile (1962) and Document: Statement of Aesthetic Withdrawal (1963), Morris avoided all traditional signifiers of the work of art; this turning away from the viewer served as a darkly effective counterbalance to the more affirmative gestures of Happening and Fluxus artists, who envisioned the total liberation of the viewer from the restrictive codes of society. Douglas Huebler (2004.51a,b) grouped his works into preestablished categories—Duration (involving the passage of time), Location (involving specific sites), and Variable (such as verifying the existence of every living person on the planet via photography), pieces consisting of typed statements combined with deadpan photographs that documented the results of the linguistic directive. Each work was a unique instance of dipping into the vast ocean of measurable data—people, places, and their transformation over time—that only highlighted the absurdity of the attempt.

On Kawara’s work represents perhaps the purest strain of Conceptualism, in that he most fully and consistently erased the boundary separating art production and everyday life. His most famous project is his Today series (begun 1966), paintings that consist solely of the date on which they were made, in the language of the city in which they were painted, against a monochrome background; each painting had to be completed by midnight of the day it commemorated or it was destroyed. In these seminal works, process, form, and content become one, reconciling existentialist notions of present-ness with a Zen-like erasure of self through meditative, repetitive acts. He also created a series of “autobiographical” works that chart the daily events and rituals so carefully excised from the Today paintings, including I GOT UP, I READ, I WENT, I MET, and telegrams responding to professional inquiries that read simply I AM STILL ALIVE. Tracing his passage through the ubiquitous, yet usually invisible, systems of measurement (map, calendar, clock) and communication (postcard, telegram) that structure everyday life, the artist accumulates abstracted signs of his own presence—an archive of the self—to test the limits of self-expression within the structures of modern society.

Roman architecture

Roman architecture was unlike anything that had come before. The Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Etruscans all had monumental architecture. The grandeur of their buildings, though, was largely external. Buildings were designed to be impressive when viewed from outside because their architects all had to rely on building in a post-and-lintel system, which means that they used two upright posts, like columns, with a horizontal block, known as a lintel, laid flat across the top. A good example is this ancient Greek Temple in Paestum, Italy.

Since lintels are heavy, the interior spaces of buildings could only be limited in size. Much of the interior space had to be devoted to supporting heavy loads.

Roman architecture differed fundamentally from this tradition because of the discovery, experimentation and exploitation of concrete, arches and vaulting (a good example of this is the Pantheon, c. 125 C.E.). Thanks to these innovations, from the first century C.E. Romans were able to create interior spaces that had previously been unheard of. Romans became increasingly concerned with shaping interior space rather than filling it with structural supports. As a result, the inside of Roman buildings were as impressive as their exteriors.

Materials, Methods and Innovations

Long before concrete made its appearance on the building scene in Rome, the Romans utilized a volcanic stone native to Italy called tufa to construct their buildings. Although tufa never went out of use, travertine began to be utilized in the late 2nd century B.C.E. because it was more durable. Also, its off-white color made it an acceptable substitute for marble.

Marble was slow to catch on in Rome during the Republican period since it was seen as an extravagance, but after the reign of Augustus (31 B.C.E. – 14 C.E.), marble became quite fashionable. Augustus had famously claimed in his funerary inscription, known as the Res Gestae, that he “found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble” referring to his ambitious building campaigns.
Roman concrete (opus caementicium), was developed early in the 2nd c. BCE. The use of mortar as a bonding agent in ashlar masonry wasn’t new in the ancient world; mortar was a combination of sand, lime and water in proper proportions. The major contribution the Romans made to the mortar recipe was the introduction of volcanic Italian sand (also known as “pozzolana”). The Roman builders who used pozzolana rather than ordinary sand noticed that their mortar was incredibly strong and durable. It also had the ability to set underwater. Brick and tile were commonly plastered over the concrete since it was not considered very pretty on its own, but concrete’s structural possibilities were far more important. The invention of opus caementicium initiated the Roman architectural revolution, allowing for builders to be much more creative with their designs. Since concrete takes the shape of the mold or frame it is poured into, buildings began to take on ever more fluid and creative shapes.

The Romans also exploited the opportunities afforded to architects by the innovation of the true arch (as opposed to a corbeled arch where stones are laid so that they move slightly in toward the center as they move higher). A true arch is composed of wedge-shaped blocks (typically of a durable stone), called voussoirs, with a key stone in the center holding them into place. In a true arch, weight is transferred from one voussoir down to the next, from the top of the arch to ground level, creating a sturdy building tool. True arches can span greater distances than a simple post-and-lintel. The use of concrete, combined with the employment of true arches allowed for vaults and domes to be built, creating expansive and breathtaking interior spaces.